In addition to freight, the charterer must also bear the commercial operating costs, return the ship in accordance with the agreed terms and react to possible damage due to improper loading. A charterer can also be a cargo-free party that charters a ship by the owner for a certain period of time and then exchanges the vessel with a profit higher than the rental price, or even makes a profit in a rising market by re-leasing the vessel to other charterers. In the case of a bareboat rental, less used in usual commercial practice, the shipowner shall deliver it to the charterer for the agreed period, without crew, warehouse, insurance or other disposition. Contracts may also be subject to a lump sum agreement if an owner agrees to ship from one port to another a certain quantity of a declared cargo for a declared sum of money. The coverage of charter liability insurance may vary depending on the type of party to the charter and the additional exclusions or exclusions agreed upon prior to the purchase of the insurance. Time Charter Equivalent is a standard performance level for the marine industry that is primarily used to compare periodic changes in a shipping company`s performance despite changes in the mix of charter types. The vast majority of contracts governing the carriage of goods by ship are concluded either by bill of lading or by charter parties. The term part charter is a falsification of the Latin carta partita or “shared charter”. It is used to describe three types of contracts dealing with the use of vessels in the possession or control of others. Under a shipwreck charter, the shipowner hands over possession of the ship to the charterer who hires the master and crew of the ship, arranges repairs and deliveries, takes charge of the cargo and behaves in the same way as the owner during the term of the charter. This contract must be formalized in writing in the “charter party”, a document that contains the details of the operation, such as the personal data of the parties and the master, the details of the itinerary, the downtime (loading and unloading) etc.
3.3 All ground and operating personnel, including cabin crew, are authorized to receive orders only by the carrier, unless a specific written agreement has been concluded in advance by the carrier The instructions laid down may be accepted by such personnel by the charterer. 11.2 This Agreement defines the entire agreement and understanding between the Parties or any of them in connection with the chartering of the aircraft, as described herein, and supersedes all assurances, agreements, preconditions, negotiations and obligations, whether orally or in writing in this regard. . . .